Photo 20 – UBB-HAA-169

A Fur farmer with his throwing stick (Fur: “dolfa”, Arabic: “sofrog”) and his spears (Fur: “Kor”, Arabic: “harba”) in front of his sweet potato (Fur: “bambai”, Arabic: “bambai”) field.

Note that the acasia albida (Fur: “kurul”, Arabic: “haraz”) trees shed the leaves in the rainy season.

Wadi Azum area, Western Darfur.

Photo: Gunnar Haaland, 1965

Photo 20 - UBB-HAA-00169

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Photo 21 – UBB-HAA-222

A Fur farmer watering his field of melons (Fur: “burto”). The water is lifted from a shallow well (Fur: “ro”) by a “shadouf” (a water lifting device) and brought in a calabash (Fur: “kere”) to the field (Fur: “rei”).

Wadi Azum area, Western Darfur.

Photo: Gunnar Haaland, 1966

Photo 21 - UBB-HAA-00222

Photo 58 – UBB-HAA-327

Circumcision of boys is an important ceremony in Fur communities and lasts for several days. It involves consumption of local beer (Fur: “kira”) and prestigious food like meat (Fur: “nino”),  and involves festive activities with dancing, most importantly the ritualized “dance of the gazelle”, (Fur: “ferangabie”). The songs sung by the women contain very explicit references to sexual intercourse and the female genitalia (Fur: “sendi”).

Amballa, Lower Wadi Azum, Western Darfur.

Photo: Gunnar Haaland, 1965

Photo 58 - UBB-HAA-00327

Photo 67 – UBB-HAA-344

Fur women are fetching water from a shallow pond by means of calabashes (Fur: “kere”) and pouring it into clay pots (Fur: “tawu”) that they carry on their heads back to the village. Activities connected with food preparation like grinding grains, collecting firewood, fetching water (Fur: “koro”) are considered female work.

Lower Wadi Azum, Western Darfur.

Photo: Gunnar Haaland, 1965

Photo 67 - UBB-HAA-00344

Photo 80 – UBB-HAA-283

The camp site of a Fur farmer who has succeeded in accumulating cash for investment in a sufficient number of cattle. Cattle thrive best when they are moved seasonally between different ecological zones. Successful Fur farmers therefore prefer to establish themselves as nomads like the Baggara Arabs when they have enough cows (Fur: “ko”). Note the tent made of straw mats (Fur and Arabic: “birish”) similar to those used by the Baggara nomads.

Lower Wadi Azum, Western Darfur.

Photo: Gunnar Haaland, 1965

Photo 80 - UBB-HAA-00283